Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from men who have sex with men

Joana Calado, Rita Maria Rodrigues Teixeira Castro, Ângela O. Lopes, Maria José Campos, Miguel Rocha, F Pereira

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9 Citations (Scopus)


To analyze the susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates to penicillin (Pen), cefixime (Cfm), ceftriaxone (Cro), tetracycline (Tet), ciprofloxacin (Cip), azithromycin (Azm), and spectinomycin (Spt), and to verify the presence of mutations in resistance genes.

Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Etest method on 30 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from the MSM (men who have sex with men) population. PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to identify mutations within the penA, mtrR, gyrA, and parC genes in intermediately resistant and fully resistant isolates.

N. gonorrhoeae isolates showed intermediate or full resistance to Pen (73%), Cfm (3%), Tet (60%), Cip (37%), and Azm (13%). One isolate with resistance to Cfm presented a penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) mosaic XXXIV. All isolates with intermediate or full resistance to Pen (except at PBP2 mosaic) presented a D345a in PBP2. All Cip-resistant isolates had an S91F in the gyrA gene together with mutations in the parC gene. All intermediate or fully resistant isolates to substrates of the MtrCDE efflux pump had an A39T or G45D mutation in the mtrR gene or an adenine deletion within the mtrR promoter. One isolate presented a Neisseria meningitidis-like mtrR promoter sequence.

The results of this study are consistent with the findings of other studies and reinforce the importance of the expedient development of new therapeutic options.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-122
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019


  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • gyrA
  • mtrR
  • parC
  • penA


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