Antibody isotype epitope mapping of SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD protein: Targets for COVID-19 symptomatology and disease control

Marinela Contreras, Joaquín Vicente, José Joaquín Cerón, Silvia Martinez Subiela, José Miguel Urra, Francisco J. Rodríguez-del-Río, Elisa Ferreras-Colino, Rita Vaz-Rodrigues, Isabel G. de Fernández de Mera, Sandra Antunes, Ana Domingos, Christian Gortázar, José de la Fuente

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2 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) still poses a challenge for biomedicine and public health. To advance the development of effective diagnostic, prognostic, and preventive interventions, our study focused on high-throughput antibody binding epitope mapping of the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD protein by IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies in saliva and sera of different cohorts from healthy uninfected individuals to SARS-CoV-2-infected unvaccinated and vaccinated asymptomatic, recovered, nonsevere, and severe patients. Identified candidate diagnostic (455-LFRKSNLKPFERD-467), prognostic (395-VYADSFVIRGDEV-407-C-KLH, 332-ITNLCPFGEV-342-C-KLH, 352-AWNRKRI-358-C-KLH, 524-VCGPKKSTNLVKN-536-KLH), and protective (MKLLE-487-NCYFPLQSYGFQPTNGVG-504-GGGGS-446-GGNYNYLYRLFRKSNLKPFERD-467) epitopes were validated with sera from prevaccine and postvaccine cohorts. The results identified neutralizing epitopes and support that antibody recognition of linear B-cell epitopes in RBD protein is associated with antibody isotype and disease symptomatology. The findings in asymptomatic individuals suggest a role for anti-RBD antibodies in the protective response against SARS-CoV-2. The possibility of translating results into diagnostic interventions for the early diagnosis of asymptomatic individuals and prognosis of disease severity provides new tools for COVID-19 surveillance and evaluation of risks in hospitalized patients. These results, together with other approaches, may contribute to the development of new vaccines for the control of COVID-19 and other coronavirus-related diseases using a quantum vaccinomics approach through the combination of protective epitopes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2250206
Number of pages17
JournalEuropean Journal of Immunology
Volume53
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023

Keywords

  • antibody isotype
  • epitope mapping
  • prognostic, SARS-CoV-2
  • spike protein

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