Anthocyanin content in raspberry and elderberry: The impact of cooking and recipe composition

Tânia Cordeiro, Iva Fernandes, Olívia Pinho, Conceição Calhau, Nuno Mateus, Ana Faria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Anthocyanins are known phytochemicals with beneficial properties for human health. The most important route of entry is by consumption of anthocyanins’ naturally rich food such as berries and red wine, in its natural form or as a part of recipes. The effect of cooking methods (boiling, steaming and baking) and recipe composition with two different berries, raspberry and elderberry, on the content of anthocyanins was investigated. Raspberries and elderberries were cooked either in a pan with water, in steam, or baked in the oven. Four recipes containing raspberries and elderberries were prepared: jam, crumble, muffin and mousse. Anthocyanin content was quantified by HPLC-DAD. Results: Generally, and compared to raw fruit, a reduction of anthocyanin content after cooking was observed, independently of the heating process. Elderberries were more prone to decrease anthocyanin content after cooking process. Nevertheless, about 70% of the anthocyanins were recovered from the fruit and the water used in the cooking process. Berry anthocyanins’ content decreased the most in jam, and in recipes with baking soda. As opposed to jam, their inclusion in mousse led to almost no decrease in anthocyanin content. Conclusion: All cooking methods tested led to a loss of the original anthocyanin content in berries but, in recipes without a thermal treatment, anthocyanin lost was minimal. These results support the incorporation of berries in cooking processes, particularly those that do not require heat, as a valid alternative to increase phytochemical consumption such as anthocyanins.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100316
JournalInternational Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Anthocyanin
  • Cooking
  • Elderberry
  • Raspberry
  • Recipes


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