Angular distribution of characteristic X-rays following electron impact ionization

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In this paper, we present a theoretical study of the X-ray fluorescence emission after vacancy of K-shell due to electron impact ionization. In particular, we focus on the angular distributions of the characteristic Kα emission lines following this process. Rh was chosen for the analysis since it is a common element in X-ray tube anodes. In this analysis we also considered some elements along the period-4, i.e., Ni, Cu and Co as case-studies. In doing so, we studied the magnetic sub-level population of the ionized states, which is directly related to the angular distribution of the emission. A relative low angular distribution for the Kα emission of Rh of 0.5% was observed, which makes the assumption of isotropic emission correct for most studies. Moreover, a comparison with the respective angular emission for adjacent elements in the fourth period of the periodic table shows that this isotropy is attributed to a small total angular momentum of the resulting configurations after ionization, as well as to opposite angular distributions of the various transitions, which average to a maximum of 0.7% angular asymmetry in Ni.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110595
Number of pages6
JournalRadiation Physics and Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Angular distribution
  • Atomic data
  • Atomic processes
  • Electron impact ionization
  • Fundamental parameters
  • Synthetic spectra


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