Analytical characterization of academic nude paintings by José Veloso Salgado

A. M. Cardeira, S. Longelin, S. Costa, A. Candeias, M. L. Carvalho, M. Manso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


This case study illustrates the analytical characterization of 12 academic nude paintings by Veloso Salgado, made between 1883 and 1893. The study was done with in situ methods (infrared reflectography and EDXRF) and benchtop equipment (Raman and FTIR microscopes and SEM-EDS). Infrared reflectography revealed underdrawings, painting style, execution method and retouched/restored areas. Analytical techniques allowed the identification of gypsum, lead white, barium white, zinc white, yellow ochre, chrome yellow, zinc yellow, vermilion, synthetic ultramarine blue, cerulean blue, Prussian blue, viridian, green earth, Paris green, red ochre, raw umber and lamp black. These results provide valuable information on Salgado's palette and his artistic production technique and allow the distinction between palettes used in Lisbon and Paris and consequently, technical interchanges between both Academies. Finally, this study intends to start a systematic analytical study of the Faculty of Fine Arts' collection, allowing the characterization of many other authors and their influences for the development of painting methodology in this Academy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14053
Pages (from-to)379-385
Number of pages7
JournalSpectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2016


  • Infrared Reflectography
  • Modern pigments
  • Nude paintings
  • μ-Raman


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