Anaesthesia and analgesia in laboratory adult zebrafish: a question of refinement

Tania Martins, Ana M Valentim, Nuno Pereira, Luis M Antunes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Anaesthesia is used daily in fish experimental procedures; however, the use of an inadequate anaesthetic protocol can compromise not only the animal's welfare but also the reliability of results. The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research has increased in the last decades, highlighting the importance of appropriate anaesthetic regimens for this species. This article reviews the main anaesthetic agents and protocols used in laboratory adult zebrafish, and some of the analgesic methods to be used in this species that still need more research. In addition, a systematized observation of signs is proposed to evaluate adult zebrafish welfare to reduce pain and distress.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)476-488
Number of pages13
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2016


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