The governance of global environmental challenges has been conceptualized comprehensively and often accurately, but it is often difficult to design institutions that provide incentives for conservation and, at the same time, control for reaching the targets across scales, utilizing available knowledge and satisfying multiple interests. This chapter analyses four governance mechanisms in biodiversity conservation: (i) command and control; (ii) planning and management: (iii) market-oriented mechanisms and economic instruments; and (iv) collaborative and participatory. It discusses the ways in which these mechanisms emphasize control and adaptiveness. The analysis utilizes governance literature and secondary material on illustrative biodiversity governance examples in different areas in Europe. The chapter draws conclusions for scale-sensitive and scale-effective analysis and policy.
- Biodiversity conservation
- Governance mechanisms