Alzheimer's disease BIN1 coding variants increase intracellular Aβ levels by interfering with BACE1 recycling

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Genetic studies have identified BIN1 as the second most important risk locus associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). However, it is unclear how mutation of this locus mechanistically promotes Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Here we show the consequences of two coding variants in BIN1 (rs754834233 and rs138047593), both in terms of intracellular beta-amyloid (iAbeta) accumulation and early endosome enlargement, two interrelated early cytopathological AD phenotypes, supporting their association with LOAD risk. We previously found that Bin1 deficiency potentiates iAbeta production by enabling BACE1 cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein in enlarged early endosomes due to decreased BACE1 recycling. Here, we discovered that the expression of the two LOAD mutant forms of Bin1 does not rescue the iAbeta accumulation and early endosome enlargement induced by Bin1 knockdown and recovered by wild-type Bin1. Moreover, the overexpression of Bin1 mutants, but not wild-type Bin1, increased the iAbeta42 fragment by reducing the recycling of BACE1, which accumulated in early endosomes, recapitulating the phenotype of Bin1 knockdown. We showed that the mutations in Bin1 reduced its interaction with BACE1. The endocytic recycling of transferrin was similarly affected, indicating that Bin1 is a general regulator of endocytic recycling. These data demonstrate that the LOAD-coding variants in Bin1 lead to a loss of function in endocytic recycling, which may be an early causal mechanism of LOAD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101056
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2021


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