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Surface metal matrix composites offer an excellent solution for applications where surface properties play a crucial role in components’ performance and durability, such as greater corrosion resistance, better wear resistance, and high formability. Solid-state processing techniques, such as friction surfacing and friction stir welding/processing, offer several advantages over conventional liquid-phase processing methods. This research investigated the feasibility of producing surface composites of aluminium-based dissimilar alloys reinforced with functional microparticles through experimental validation, determined the process parameters that resulted in a more homogeneous distribution of the particles in the surface composites, and enhanced the understanding of Upward Friction Stir Processing (UFSP) technology. The production of aluminium-based dissimilar alloys (AA 7075-T651 and AA 6082-T651) surface composites reinforced with SiC particles was studied, and it was concluded that the macrography and micrography analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, microhardness measurements, and eddy currents technique reveal an extensive and homogeneous incorporation of SiC particles. In the stirred zone, a decrease of approximately 20 HV 0.5 in hardness was observed compared to the base material. This reduction is attributed to the weakening effect caused by low-temperature annealing during UFSP, which reduces the strengthening effect of the T651 heat treatment. Additionally, the presence of particles did not affect the surface composite hardness in the stirred zone. Furthermore, despite the presence of significant internal defects, SEM analyses revealed evidence of the lower alloy merging with the upper zone, indicating that the lower plate had a role beyond being merely sacrificial. Therefore, the production of bimetallic composites through UFSP may offer advantages over composites produced from a monometallic matrix. The results of the eddy currents testing and microhardness measurements support this finding and are consistent with the SEM/EDS analyses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number962
Number of pages18
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 21 May 2023


  • aluminium alloys
  • metal matrix composites
  • SiC particles
  • surface composites
  • surface modification
  • upward friction stir processing


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