1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Locating the position of a remote node on a wireless network is becoming more relevant, as we move forward in the Internet of things and in autonomous vehicles. This paper proposes a new system to implement the location of remote nodes. A new prototype Android application has been developed to collect real measurements and to study the performance of several smartphone's sensors and location algorithms, including an innovative one, based on the second order cone programming (SOCP) relaxation. The application collects the WiFi access points information and the terminal location. An internal odometry module developed for the prototype is used when Android's service is unavailable. This paper compares the performance of existing location estimators given in closed form, an existing SOCP one, and the new SOCP location estimator proposed, which has reduced complexity. An algorithm to merge measurements from non-identical terminals is also proposed. Cooperative and terminal stand-alone operations are compared, showing a higher performance for SOCP-based ones, that are capable of estimating the path loss exponent and the transmission power. The heterogeneous terminals were also used in the tests. Our results show that the accurate positioning of static remote entities can be achieved using a single smartphone. On the other hand, the accurate real-time positioning of the mobile terminal is provided when three or more scattered terminal nodes cooperate sharing the samples taken synchronously.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8664423
Pages (from-to)33713-33727
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Access
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Smartphones
Cones
Power transmission
Wireless networks
Sensors

Keywords

  • android applications
  • cooperative localization
  • Indoor location
  • localizing remote nodes without known anchors
  • location algorithms
  • odometry

Cite this

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title = "Algorithms for Estimating the Location of Remote Nodes Using Smartphones",
abstract = "Locating the position of a remote node on a wireless network is becoming more relevant, as we move forward in the Internet of things and in autonomous vehicles. This paper proposes a new system to implement the location of remote nodes. A new prototype Android application has been developed to collect real measurements and to study the performance of several smartphone's sensors and location algorithms, including an innovative one, based on the second order cone programming (SOCP) relaxation. The application collects the WiFi access points information and the terminal location. An internal odometry module developed for the prototype is used when Android's service is unavailable. This paper compares the performance of existing location estimators given in closed form, an existing SOCP one, and the new SOCP location estimator proposed, which has reduced complexity. An algorithm to merge measurements from non-identical terminals is also proposed. Cooperative and terminal stand-alone operations are compared, showing a higher performance for SOCP-based ones, that are capable of estimating the path loss exponent and the transmission power. The heterogeneous terminals were also used in the tests. Our results show that the accurate positioning of static remote entities can be achieved using a single smartphone. On the other hand, the accurate real-time positioning of the mobile terminal is provided when three or more scattered terminal nodes cooperate sharing the samples taken synchronously.",
keywords = "android applications, cooperative localization, Indoor location, localizing remote nodes without known anchors, location algorithms, odometry",
author = "Dario Pedro and Slavisa Tomic and Luis Bernardo and Marko Beko and Rodolfo Oliveira and Rui Dinis and Paulo Pinto and P. Amaral",
note = "This work was supported in part by the Project CoSHARE (LISBOA-01-0145-FEDER-0307095 - PTDC/EEI-TEL/30709/2017), Project UID/EEA/50008/2019, Project UID/MULTI/04111/0216, Project foRESTER (PCIF/SSI/0102/2017), and Program Investigador FCT under Grant IF/00325/2015, in part by the Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER), through Programa Operacional Regional LISBOA under Grant LISBOA2020, and in part by the national funds, through Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (FCT).",
year = "2019",
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AU - Pedro, Dario

AU - Tomic, Slavisa

AU - Bernardo, Luis

AU - Beko, Marko

AU - Oliveira, Rodolfo

AU - Dinis, Rui

AU - Pinto, Paulo

AU - Amaral, P.

N1 - This work was supported in part by the Project CoSHARE (LISBOA-01-0145-FEDER-0307095 - PTDC/EEI-TEL/30709/2017), Project UID/EEA/50008/2019, Project UID/MULTI/04111/0216, Project foRESTER (PCIF/SSI/0102/2017), and Program Investigador FCT under Grant IF/00325/2015, in part by the Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER), through Programa Operacional Regional LISBOA under Grant LISBOA2020, and in part by the national funds, through Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (FCT).

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N2 - Locating the position of a remote node on a wireless network is becoming more relevant, as we move forward in the Internet of things and in autonomous vehicles. This paper proposes a new system to implement the location of remote nodes. A new prototype Android application has been developed to collect real measurements and to study the performance of several smartphone's sensors and location algorithms, including an innovative one, based on the second order cone programming (SOCP) relaxation. The application collects the WiFi access points information and the terminal location. An internal odometry module developed for the prototype is used when Android's service is unavailable. This paper compares the performance of existing location estimators given in closed form, an existing SOCP one, and the new SOCP location estimator proposed, which has reduced complexity. An algorithm to merge measurements from non-identical terminals is also proposed. Cooperative and terminal stand-alone operations are compared, showing a higher performance for SOCP-based ones, that are capable of estimating the path loss exponent and the transmission power. The heterogeneous terminals were also used in the tests. Our results show that the accurate positioning of static remote entities can be achieved using a single smartphone. On the other hand, the accurate real-time positioning of the mobile terminal is provided when three or more scattered terminal nodes cooperate sharing the samples taken synchronously.

AB - Locating the position of a remote node on a wireless network is becoming more relevant, as we move forward in the Internet of things and in autonomous vehicles. This paper proposes a new system to implement the location of remote nodes. A new prototype Android application has been developed to collect real measurements and to study the performance of several smartphone's sensors and location algorithms, including an innovative one, based on the second order cone programming (SOCP) relaxation. The application collects the WiFi access points information and the terminal location. An internal odometry module developed for the prototype is used when Android's service is unavailable. This paper compares the performance of existing location estimators given in closed form, an existing SOCP one, and the new SOCP location estimator proposed, which has reduced complexity. An algorithm to merge measurements from non-identical terminals is also proposed. Cooperative and terminal stand-alone operations are compared, showing a higher performance for SOCP-based ones, that are capable of estimating the path loss exponent and the transmission power. The heterogeneous terminals were also used in the tests. Our results show that the accurate positioning of static remote entities can be achieved using a single smartphone. On the other hand, the accurate real-time positioning of the mobile terminal is provided when three or more scattered terminal nodes cooperate sharing the samples taken synchronously.

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KW - cooperative localization

KW - Indoor location

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KW - location algorithms

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