Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Pathophysiology, Management, and Future Perspectives

Rita Flores, Ângela Carneiro, Miguel Vieira, Sandra Tenreiro, Miguel C Seabra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Among older adults, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent disabling condition that begins as subtle visual disturbances and can progress to permanent loss of central vision. In its late neovascular form, AMD is treatable with inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor, the key driver of exudative disease. In the atrophic form, treatment remains elusive. This review addresses the natural history of AMD â€"through early, intermediate, and advanced disease stages â€"and concentrates on diagnosis and risk stratification, deficiencies of current treatments, and the promising findings of emerging therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)495-511
JournalOphthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift fur Augenheilkunde
Issue number6
Early online date15 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Biomarkers
  • Geographic atrophy
  • Macular neovascularization


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