Adoption and patterns of use of invasive physiological assessment of coronary artery disease in a large cohort of 40821 real-world procedures over a 12-year period

Luís Raposo, Mariana Gonçalves, David Roque, Pedro Araújo Gonçalves, Pedro Magno, João Brito, Sílvio Leal, Sérgio Madeira, Miguel Santos, Rui Campante Teles, Pedro Farto E Abreu, Manuel Almeida, Carlos Morais, Miguel Mendes, Sérgio Bravo Baptista

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INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Use of invasive physiological assessment in patients with coronary artery disease varies widely and is perceived to be low. We aimed to examine adoption rates as well as patterns and determinants of use in an unselected population undergoing invasive coronary angiography over a long time frame.

METHODS: We retrospectively determined the per-procedure prevalence of physiological assessment in 40821 coronary cases performed between 2007 and 2018 in two large-volume centers. Adoption was examined according to procedure type and patient- and operator-related variables. Its association with relevant scientific landmarks, such as the release of clinical trial results and practice guidelines, was also assessed.

RESULTS: Overall adoption was low, ranging from 0.6% in patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography due to underlying valve disease, to 6% in the setting of stable coronary artery disease (CAD); it was 3.1% in patients sustaining an acute coronary syndrome. Of scientific landmarks, FAME 1, the long-term results of FAME 2 and the 2014 European myocardial revascularization guidelines were associated with changes in practice. Publication of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) trials had no influence on adoption rates, except for a higher proportion of iFR use. In 42.9% of stable CAD patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention there was no objective non-invasive evidence of ischemia, nor was physiological assessment performed. Younger operator age (4.5% vs. 4.0% vs. 0.9% for ages <40, 40-55 and >55 years, respectively; p<0.001) and later time of procedure during the day (2.9% between 6 and 8 p.m. vs. 4.4% at other times) were independent correlates of use of invasive physiology.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the low use of invasive physiology in routine practice. The availability of resting indices did not increase adoption. Strategies are warranted to promote guideline implementation and to improve patient care and clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)771-781
Number of pages11
JournalRevista Portuguesa de Cardiologia (English Edition)
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • Cardiac Catheterization
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Coronary Stenosis
  • Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Retrospective Studies


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