Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Vulva and Vagina: A Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Characterization of Five Cases

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Abstract

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm most frequently observed in the salivary glands, that can occur in other organs, including the vulva and vagina. Oncogenic mechanisms involving MYB, NFIB, and MYB-NFIB rearrangements have been described, but evidence in the vulva and vagina remains scarce. Our aim is to report the clinicopathologic features, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings in a series of vulvar and vaginal ACCs. Five cases were included. Medical records and slides were reviewed. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material was available in 4 cases, where additional immunohistochemical and molecular studies were carried out. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB bacterial artificial chromosome-clones break-apart and MYB::NFIB BAC-clones fusion probes was performed. The patients' mean age at diagnosis was 52 years. Tumor size ranged from 0.5 to 5 cm. Microscopic examination revealed tubular, cribriform, and solid patterns. Perineural invasion was seen in 4 cases. Patients were treated with surgery, some with adjuvant radiation therapy. During follow-up (mean: 11 yr), 4 patients developed local recurrences. Recently, one of these patients developed pulmonary disease. Cam 5.2, CK5/6, CD117, and DOG-1 were positive in all 4 cases and S100 and calponin were positive in 3 cases. MYB rearrangement was present in 3 cases, including one with concurrent MYB amplification. There were no MYBL1 or NFIB rearrangements and no MYB::NFIB fusions. Our findings corroborate that the histologic, immunohistochemical, and oncogenic background is similar between ACCs of the lower female genital tract and ACCs elsewhere, although the canonical MYB::NFIB fusion seems to be a less common finding in this location.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecological Pathology
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Jan 2024

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