Three new additional skull specimens of Talarurus plicatospineus have been recovered from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian–Santonian) Bayanshiree Formation, of Bayan Shiree cliffs, eastern Gobi Desert, Mongolia. The skulls feature unique characters such as an anteriorly protruded single internarial caputegulum, around 20 flat or concave nasal-area caputegulae surrounded by a wide sulcus, a vertically oriented elongate loreal caputegulum with a pitted surface, an elongate lacrimal caputegulum positioned above the posterodorsal border of the maxilla, two longitudinally arranged large frontoparietal caputegulae surrounded by smaller rhomboid caputegulae, small but elongate medial supraorbital caputegulae, a posterior supraorbital caputegulum that is four times larger than the anterior one, up to three transverse parallel grooves on the dorsal surface of the posterior supraorbital caputegulum, postocular caputegulae along the ventral to posterior rim of the orbit that extend almost to the anteroventral margin of the squamosal horn, a longitudinal furrow tapering towards the apex of the squamosal horn, a lateral nuchal caputegulum four to five times larger than other nuchal caputegulae, and a pterygovomerine keel with a ventral margin that is dorsally positioned to the alveolar ridge. The phylogenetic analysis result showed that Talarurus is sister to the clade that includes the derived Asian ankylosaurines (Saichania chulsanensis, Tarchia kielanae, and Zaraapelta nomadis). It also shows that there was dispersal of ankylosaurines from Asia into western North America before the Cenomanian. Moreover, the rostral differences between Talarurus and Tsagantegia, another ankylosaur from the same formation, suggest possible niche partitioning between these taxa.
- Bayanshiree formation
- Talarurus plicatospineus