Acute Aquatic Toxicity and Biodegradability of Fluorinated Ionic Liquids

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51 Citations (Scopus)


Several novel fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs), fully miscible with water and with excellent surfactant behavior, have been studied for pharmacological applications. The use of these novel FILs as drug delivery systems can improve the bioavailability, stability and efficacy of therapeutic proteins. An initial screening of toxicity in four different human cell lines indicated that some of the FILs possess low cytotoxicity. An environmental hazard assessment of these compounds, in the context of Green Pharmacy, is necessary before a pharmaceutical application takes place. In this work, ecotoxicity tests have been performed in aquatic species with different levels of biological organization (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Lemna minor) to evaluate intrinsic hazard that these FILs might pose after being released to the aquatic environment from the human body or from industrial processes. Additionally, the biodegradability of these compounds has been evaluated using microorganisms from wastewater treatment plants. ©

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3733-3741
Number of pages9
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 18 Feb 2019


  • Aquatic environment
  • Biodegradation
  • Daphnia magna
  • Ecotoxicity
  • Fluorosurfactants
  • Lemna minor
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Vibrio fischeri


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