Acute and chronic toxicity of 2,4-D and fipronil formulations (individually and in mixture) to the Neotropical cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii

Laís C. M. Silva, Raquel A. Moreira, Thandy J. S. Pinto, Allan P. Ogura, Maria P. C. Yoshii, Laís F. P. Lopes, Cassiana C. Montagner, Bianca V. Goulart, Michiel A. Daam, Evaldo L. G. Espíndola

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane and the world’s top pesticide market. Therefore, environmental consequences are of concern. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of pesticide formulations largely used in sugarcane crops: the herbicide DMA® 806 BR (a.i. 2,4-D) and the insecticide Regent® 800 WG (a.i. fipronil), isolated and in mixture, to the Neotropical cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii. Toxicity tests with the individual formulated products indicated 48h-EC50 values of 169 ± 18 mg a.i./L for 2,4-D and 3.9 ± 0.50 µg a.i./L for fipronil. In the chronic tests, the 8d-EC50 values for reproduction were 55 mg a.i./L (NOEC/LOEC: 50/60 mg a.i./L) and 1.6 µg a.i./L (NOEC/LOEC: 0.40/0.80 µg a.i./L) for 2,4-D and fipronil, respectively. A significant decrease in reproduction of C. silvestrii in all concentrations tested of fipronil, except at the lowest, was observed. Regarding 2,4-D, the organisms had total inhibition of reproduction in the two highest concentrations. Probably your energy reallocation was focused (trade-off) only on its survival. The acute pesticide mixture toxicity (immobility) revealed a dose level dependent deviation with antagonism at low and synergism at high concentrations. For chronic mixture (reproduction) toxicity, antagonism occurred as a result of the interaction of the pesticides. Based on our results and concentrations measured in Brazilian water bodies, fipronil represents ecological risks for causing direct toxic effects on C. silvestrii. These results are worrisome given that agricultural production is likely to increase in the coming years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1462–1475
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Aquatic ecotoxicology
  • DMA® 806 BR
  • Herbicide
  • Insecticide
  • Regent® 800 WG
  • Reproduction


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