Abamectin and difenoconazole monitoring in strawberry flowers and pollen sampled from Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hives located in crop vicinities

José Augusto Michelleti Burgarelli, Dayana Moscardi dos Santos, Fernanda Scavassa Ribeiro Prado, Waleria Ferreira Rabêlo, Rafael Sardeli, Janete Brigante, Michiel Adriaan Daam, Eny Maria Vieira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The increase in agricultural productivity associated with the emergence and the extensive use of pesticides is undeniable. However, strong evidence indicates that this continuous demand is causing serious environmental impacts and bringing toxic effects to associated biota as pollinating insects. The present work aims the determination of the insecticide abamectin (ABA) and the fungicide difenoconazole (DIF) in strawberry flowers (Fragaria x ananassa DUCH.) and pollen sampled from beehives of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) located nearby strawberry fields. For analysis, QuEChERS method was optimized, and the analytical performance of those two pesticides was verified. Then, the method was applied to strawberry flowers and the pollen was sampled during three field campaigns. While abamectin was not detected, the systemic fungicide difenoconazole was determined in almost all flowers and pollen samples, demonstrating the major persistence of this pesticide in investigated matrices. The results were then discussed about the difenoconazole application rate and transport to colonies to estimate a preliminary environmental risk assessment for stingless native bees. All calculations were proceeded considering exposure rates and toxicity data from the literature, adapted from Apis mellifera studies. In this sense, the determination, application, and discussion about risk assessment figure out as an important tool to the knowledge about the preliminary risks of native bees exposed to pesticides.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65401-65411
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume30
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

Keywords

  • LC–MS/MS
  • Pesticides
  • Risk assessment
  • Stingless bees

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