A survey of semantic methods in genetic programming

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120 Citations (Scopus)


Several methods to incorporate semantic awareness in genetic programming have been proposed in the last few years. These methods cover fundamental parts of the evolutionary process: from the population initialization, through different ways of modifying or extending the existing genetic operators, to formal methods, until the definition of completely new genetic operators. The objectives are also distinct: from the maintenance of semantic diversity to the study of semantic locality; from the use of semantics for constructing solutions which obey certain constraints to the exploitation of the geometry of the semantic topological space aimed at defining easy-to-search fitness landscapes. All these approaches have shown, in different ways and amounts, that incorporating semantic awareness may help improving the power of genetic programming. This survey analyzes and discusses the state of the art in the field, organizing the existing methods into different categories. It restricts itself to studies where semantics is intended as the set of output values of a program on the training data, a definition that is common to a rather large set of recent contributions. It does not discuss methods for incorporating semantic information into grammar-based genetic programming or approaches based on formal methods. The objective is keeping the community updated on this interesting research track, hoping to motivate new and stimulating contributions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-214
Number of pages20
JournalGenetic Programming And Evolvable Machines
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2014


  • Genetic programming
  • Genotype/phenotype
  • Semantics
  • Survey


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