A Spatiotemporal Comparative Analysis of Docked and Dockless Shared Micromobility Services

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Sustainable urban mobility is an imperative concern in contemporary cities, and shared micromobility systems, such as docked bike-sharing, dockless bike-sharing, and dockless e-scooter-sharing, are recognized as essential contributors to sustainable behaviors in cities, both complementing and enhancing public transport options. Most of the literature on this subject predominantly focuses on individual assessments of these systems, overlooking the comparative analysis necessary for a comprehensive understanding. This study aims to bridge this gap by conducting a spatiotemporal analysis of two different shared micromobility modes of transportation, docked bike-sharing systems and dockless e-scooter-sharing systems operating in the municipality of Lisbon. The analysis is further segmented into arrivals and departures on weekdays and weekends. Additionally, this study explores the impact of sociodemographic factors, the population’s commuting modes, and points of interest (POIs) on the demand for both docked bike-sharing and dockless e-scooter-sharing. Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression (MGWR) models are employed to estimate the influence of these factors on system usage in different parishes in Lisbon. Comparative analysis reveals that the temporal distribution of trips is similar for both docked bike-sharing and dockless e-scooter-sharing systems on weekdays and weekends. However, differences in spatial distribution between the two systems were observed. The MGWR results indicate that the number of individuals commuting by bike in each parish has a positive effect on docked bike-sharing, while it exerts a negative influence on dockless e-scooter-sharing. Also, the number of commercial points of interest (POIs) for weekday arrivals positively affects the usage of both systems. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of shared micromobility patterns in urban environments and can aid cities in developing effective strategies that not only promote and increase the utilization of these shared micromobility systems but also contribute to sustainable urban mobility.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)880-912
Number of pages33
JournalSmart Cities
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2024


  • sustainable transport
  • urban mobility
  • shared micromobility
  • spatiotemporal
  • docked bike-sharing
  • dockless e-scooter-sharing


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