A roadmap for state mindfulness research

Samantha Sim, Francesco Sguera, Andrew Hafenbrack

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


The state mindfulness induction experimental paradigm allows researchers to examine the state level changes of mindfulness, as well as to observe psychological consequences. Yet, the methodological foundations of state mindfulness are still in their infancy. Towards further developing these methodological foundations, the present research investigated these research questions: What are effective ways to induce state mindfulness? How long of an induction is necessary to effectively induce state mindfulness? For whom does state mindfulness induction work? Why do state mindfulness inductions work? We conducted four studies in which participants were randomly assigned to mindfulness inductions and comparison conditions. Study 1 found that focused breathing and body scan inductions can be effective in increasing state mindfulness, altering temporal focus, and reducing state anxiety and perceived stress. However, two separate focused breathing inductions varied greatly in their effects on some of these outcomes. Study 2 found that at least 15 minutes of focused breathing induction is necessary to increase state mindfulness such that it is detectable compared to a no-meditation baseline state. Study 3, a meta-analysis, found that the efficacy of state mindfulness inductions is not moderated by meditation frequency. Study 4 compared different control conditions to a mindfulness induction in a way that further elucidates the mechanisms of mindfulness, including ego dissolution. We discuss implications for research and practice.
Original languageEnglish
Article number13142
JournalAcademy of Management Proceedings
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019


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