A Review on the Applications of Graphene in Mechanical Transduction

Alexandre F. Carvalho, Bohdan Kulyk, António J. S. Fernandes, Elvira Fortunato, Florinda M. Costa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)


A pressing need to develop low-cost, environmentally friendly, and sensitive sensors has arisen with the advent of the always-connected paradigm of the internet-of-things (IoT). In particular, mechanical sensors have been widely studied in recent years for applications ranging from health monitoring, through mechanical biosignals, to structure integrity analysis. On the other hand, innovative ways to implement mechanical actuation have also been the focus of intense research in an attempt to close the circle of human–machine interaction, and move toward applications in flexible electronics. Due to its potential scalability, disposability, and outstanding properties, graphene has been thoroughly studied in the field of mechanical transduction. The applications of graphene in mechanical transduction are reviewed here. An overview of sensor and actuator applications is provided, covering different transduction mechanisms such as piezoresistivity, capacitive sensing, optically interrogated displacement, piezoelectricity, triboelectricity, electrostatic actuation, chemomechanical and thermomechanical actuation, as well as thermoacoustic emission. A critical review of the main approaches is presented within the scope of a wider discussion on the future of this so-called wonder material in the field of mechanical transduction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2101326
Number of pages55
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 24 Feb 2022


  • actuators
  • graphene
  • optical absorption
  • piezoresistivity
  • sensors
  • synthesis
  • transducers


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