A review of sample and hold systems and design of a new fractional algorithm

Manuel Duarte Ortigueira, José Tenreiro Machado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
25 Downloads (Pure)


Digital systems require sample and hold (S&H) systems to perform the conversion from analog to digital and vice versa. Besides the standard zero and first order holds, we find in the literature other versions, namely the fractional and exponential order holds, involving parameters that can be tuned to produce a superior performance. This paper reviews the fundamental concepts associated with the S&H and proposes a new fractional version. The systems are modeled both in the time and Laplace domains. The new S&H stemming from fractional calculus generalizes these devices. The different S&H systems are compared in the frequency domain and their relationships visualized by means of hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling representations. The novel strategy allows a better understanding of the possibilities and limitations of S&H systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7360
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2020


  • Distances
  • Fractional calculus
  • Hierarchical clustering
  • Multidimensional scaling
  • Sample and hold


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