The non-destructive testing and diagnosis of transport infrastructures is essential because of the need to protect these facilities for mobility, and for economic and social development. The effective and timely assessment of structural health conditions becomes crucial in order to assure the safety of the transportation system and time saver protocols, as well as to reduce excessive repair and maintenance costs. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the most recommended non-destructive methods for routine subsurface inspections. This paper focuses on the on-site use of GPR applied to transport infrastructures, namely pavements, railways, retaining walls, bridges and tunnels. The methodologies, advantages and disadvantages, along with up-to-date research results on GPR in infrastructure inspection are presented herein. Hence, through the review of the published literature, the potential of using GPR is demonstrated, while the main limitations of the method are discussed and some practical recommendations are made.