A Different Perspective on the Production and Application of Warm Mix Asphalt Under Unfavorable Temperature Conditions

Rui Micaelo, José Neves, Rui Lopes, Alexandra Jesus

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is produced by a variety of technologies at lower temperatures that enable to gain important environmental and social benefits and, in consequence, to contribute to a more sustainable transportation infrastructure. The producer usually defines the temperatures used in WMA production. However, some references suggest the increase of temperature in order to allow a longer time to transport or to compact in cases of unfavourable weather conditions, mainly under low temperatures. The objective of this paper is to analyse the feasibility of producing WMA at the same temperatures of hot mix asphalt (HMA) guaranteeing an adequate compaction, and final performance in service. The paper describes a laboratory study to investigate the properties of a WMA using different additives and varying the mixing and compaction temperatures. The effect of production temperatures on the performance of the WMA was evaluated through binder drainage (production phase), volumetric properties (compaction phase), and resistance to permanent deformation (service phase). The paper also presents a numerical study on the time available for paving WMA under unfavourable climatic conditions. Results demonstrated that it is possible to produce WMA at high temperatures without problems of binder drainage, during transport, and of performance in service if adequate compaction is achieved. In fact, the production temperatures influenced the compaction phase. However, it is possible to increase the temperature without negatively affecting the required volumetric properties. The rut depth of the permanent deformation test was mostly influenced by the air-voids of the compacted WMA and the binder. From the numerical study, it was concluded that the time available for in situ compaction increased substantially when WMA was paved at higher temperature. However, in cases of low air temperature and thin layer, the increase of temperature may not be sufficient to obtain the desired level of density or air-voids.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTransportation and Geotechniques
Subtitle of host publicationMaterials, Sustainability and Climate. GeoChina 2018
EditorsM. Barman, M. Zaman, J. R. Chang
Place of PublicationCham
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-95768-5
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-95767-8
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventGeoChina 2018: Transportation and Geotechniques: Materials, Sustainability and Climate - HangZhou, China
Duration: 23 Jul 201825 Jul 2018

Publication series

NameSustainable Civil Infrastructures
ISSN (Print)2366-3405
ISSN (Electronic)2366-3413


ConferenceGeoChina 2018: Transportation and Geotechniques: Materials, Sustainability and Climate


  • Adequate Compaction
  • Binder Drainage
  • Compact Phase
  • Densification Temperature
  • Production Temperatures


Dive into the research topics of 'A Different Perspective on the Production and Application of Warm Mix Asphalt Under Unfavorable Temperature Conditions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this