A 3 year longitudinal prospective review examining the dietary profile and contribution made by special low protein foods to energy and macronutrient intake in children with phenylketonuria

Anne Daly, Sharon Evans, Alex Pinto, Catherine Ashmore, Júlio César Rocha, Anita Macdonald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The nutritional composition of special low protein foods (SLPFs) is controlled under EU legislation for ‘Foods for Special Medical Purposes (FSMP)’. They are designed to meet the energy needs of patients unable to eat a normal protein containing diet. In phenylketonuria (PKU), the macronutrient contribution of SLPFs has been inadequately examined. Aim: A 3-year longitudinal prospective study investigating the contribution of SLPFs to the macronutrient intake of children with early treated PKU. Methods: 48 children (27 boys) with a mean recruitment age of 9.3 y were studied. Semi-quantitative dietary assessments and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) were collected three to four times/year for 3 years. Results: The mean energy intake provided by SLPFs was 33% (SD ± 8), and this figure was 42% (SD ± 13) for normal food and 21% (SD ± 5) for protein substitutes (PS). SLPFs supplied a mean intake of 40% carbohydrate (SD ± 10), 51% starch (SD ± 18), 21% sugar (SD ± 8), and 38% fat (SD ± 13). Fibre intake met 83% of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) reference value, with 50% coming from SLPFs with added gums and hydrocolloids. Low protein bread, pasta and milk provided the highest energy contribution, and the intake of sweet SLPFs (e.g., biscuits, cakes, and chocolate) was minimal. Children averaged three portions fruit/vegetable daily, and children aged ≥ 12 y had irregular meal patterns. Conclusion: SLPFs provide essential energy in phenylalanine restricted diets. Optimising the nutritional quality of SLPFs deserves more attention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3153
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalNutrients
Volume12
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020

Keywords

  • Glycomacropeptide
  • Macronutrient intake
  • Phenylketonuria
  • PKU
  • Protein substitute
  • Special low protein foods

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'A 3 year longitudinal prospective review examining the dietary profile and contribution made by special low protein foods to energy and macronutrient intake in children with phenylketonuria'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this