A 178-clinical-center experiment of integrating AI solutions for lung pathology diagnosis

Bulat Ibragimov, Kirill Arzamasov, Bulat Maksudov, Semen Kiselev, Alexander Mongolin, Tamerlan Mustafaev, Dilyara Ibragimova, Ksenia Evteeva, Anna Andreychenko, Sergey Morozov

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In 2020, an experiment testing AI solutions for lung X-ray analysis on a multi-hospital network was conducted. The multi-hospital network linked 178 Moscow state healthcare centers, where all chest X-rays from the network were redirected to a research facility, analyzed with AI, and returned to the centers. The experiment was formulated as a public competition with monetary awards for participating industrial and research teams. The task was to perform the binary detection of abnormalities from chest X-rays. For the objective real-life evaluation, no training X-rays were provided to the participants. This paper presents one of the top-performing AI frameworks from this experiment. First, the framework used two EfficientNets, histograms of gradients, Haar feature ensembles, and local binary patterns to recognize whether an input image represents an acceptable lung X-ray sample, meaning the X-ray is not grayscale inverted, is a frontal chest X-ray, and completely captures both lung fields. Second, the framework extracted the region with lung fields and then passed them to a multi-head DenseNet, where the heads recognized the patient’s gender, age and the potential presence of abnormalities, and generated the heatmap with the abnormality regions highlighted. During one month of the experiment from 11.23.2020 to 12.25.2020, 17,888 cases have been analyzed by the framework with 11,902 cases having radiological reports with the reference diagnoses that were unequivocally parsed by the experiment organizers. The performance measured in terms of the area under receiving operator curve (AUC) was 0.77. The AUC for individual diseases ranged from 0.55 for herniation to 0.90 for pneumothorax.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1135
Number of pages14
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2023


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