40 years of immunization in Mozambique: a narrative review of literature, accomplishments, and perspectives

Marta Cassocera, Assucênio Chissaque, MR Martins, Nilsa de Deus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
37 Downloads (Pure)


In Mozambique, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was implemented in 1979 with the objective of reducing child mortality and morbidity through the provision of immunization services. This study aims to describe the characteristics of the EPI and review the available information related to immunization service in Mozambique, its accomplishments and perspectives. A narrative review of the literature was carried out and the electronic databases accessed were VHL, Google Scholar, and PubMed between 1979 and 2019, using descriptors related to the theme. A total of 28 articles and other relevant sources have been consulted for the review. The national immunization coverage in Mozambique between 1997 (47%) and 2015 (66%) improved 19 percentual points; also immunization coverage of children under 12 months has increased from 44.3% (1997) to 57% (2015). The 2015 survey showed that out of the 11 provinces, only the southern and Cabo Delgado province could reach the 80% recommended goal at the provincial level. Zambézia, Nampula, and Tete provinces have been reporting low coverage over the years and Cabo Delgado presents coverage oscillation. The BCG, DPT3, Polio 3, and measles have reached 80% of coverage goal from 1997 to 2015. Our analysis have shown important improvements in national immunization, characterized by an overall increase in the national and provincial coverage and a decrease in the number of children that did not receive any vaccine. Despite these improvements, some provinces have lower coverages than expected and it is necessary to understand the determinants of dropout in children to retain them and provide timely and full immunization.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00038320
Pages (from-to)e00038320-e00038337
Number of pages17
JournalCadernos de Saúde Pública
Issue numbersupl. 2
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2020


  • Child
  • Immunization coverage
  • Surveys


Dive into the research topics of '40 years of immunization in Mozambique: a narrative review of literature, accomplishments, and perspectives'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this