3D Breast Volume Estimation

Pedro F. Gouveia, Hélder P. Oliveira, João P. Monteiro, João F. Teixeira, Nuno L. Silva, David Pinto, Carlos Mavioso, João Anacleto, Marta Martinho, Inês Duarte, Jaime S. Cardoso, Fatima Cardoso, Maria João Cardoso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Breast volume estimation is considered crucial for breast cancer surgery planning. A single, easy, and reproducible method to estimate breast volume is not available. This study aims to evaluate, in patients proposed for mastectomy, the accuracy of the calculation of breast volume from a low-cost 3D surface scan (Microsoft Kinect) compared to the breast MRI and water displacement technique. Material and Methods: Patients with a Tis/T1-T3 breast cancer proposed for mastectomy between July 2015 and March 2017 were assessed for inclusion in the study. Breast volume calculations were performed using a 3D surface scan and the breast MRI and water displacement technique. Agreement between volumes obtained with both methods was assessed with the Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Eighteen patients with invasive breast cancer were included in the study and submitted to mastectomy. The level of agreement of the 3D breast volume compared to surgical specimens and breast MRI volumes was evaluated. For mastectomy specimen volume, an average (standard deviation) of 0.823 (0.027) and 0.875 (0.026) was obtained for the Pearson and Spearman correlations, respectively. With respect to MRI annotation, we obtained 0.828 (0.038) and 0.715 (0.018). Discussion: Although values obtained by both methodologies still differ, the strong linear correlation coefficient suggests that 3D breast volume measurement using a low-cost surface scan device is feasible and can approximate both the MRI breast volume and mastectomy specimen with sufficient accuracy. Conclusion: 3D breast volume measurement using a depth-sensor low-cost surface scan device is feasible and can parallel MRI breast and mastectomy specimen volumes with enough accuracy. Differences between methods need further development to reach clinical applicability. A possible approach could be the fusion of breast MRI and the 3D surface scan to harmonize anatomic limits and improve volume delimitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-8
JournalEuropean Surgical Research
Issue number1
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • 3D surface scan
  • Breast cancer
  • Breast MRI
  • Breast volume
  • Experimental study
  • Surgery


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