19th century stained-glass windows from Belém do Pará (Brazil): Analytical characterisation and pathology

Amanda M. Corrêa Pinto, Thais A. B. C. Sanjad, Rômulo S. Angélica, Marcondes L. da Costa, Rosildo S. Paiva, Teresa Palomar

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4 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this work was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the stained-glass windows into the 19th century of two mausoleums located in the city of Belém do Pará (Brazil), and to evaluate their state of conservation. The glass chemical composition was determined by WXRF and SEM/EDS. The samples' morphology and the microorganisms' identification were carried out by optical microscopy. The results indicated that the samples were soda-lime silicate glass, with approximately 70wt. % of SiO2, which contributed to the resistance of the stained glass to the weathering. The concentration of Na2O was normally twice the K2O, which contrasts with the composition of other panels produced during the same period, as reported in the literature. The biofilm is composed by cyanobacteria and rotifers. Overall, the panels analysed were in a good state of conservation, despite their exposure to tropical climate conditions for more than a century with no preventive measures whatsoever.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-141
JournalBoletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Biodeterioration
  • Brazilian Amazon Region
  • Conservation
  • Soda-lime silicate glass
  • Stained glass


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