The current standard treatment for leishmaniasis has remained the same for over 100 years, despite inducing several adverse effects and increasing cases of resistance. In this study we evaluated the in vitro antileishmanial activity of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3 triazole compounds and carried out in silico predictive study of their pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties. Ten compounds were analyzed, with compound 6 notably presenting IC50: 14.64 ± 4.392 µM against promastigotes, IC50: 17.78 ± 3.257 µM against intracellular amastigotes, CC50: 547.88 ± 3.256 µM against BALB/c peritoneal macrophages, and 30.81-fold selectivity for the parasite over the cells. It also resulted in a remarkable decrease in all the parameters of in vitro infection. Ultrastructural analysis revealed lipid corpuscles, a nucleus with discontinuity of the nuclear membrane, a change in nuclear chromatin, and kinetoplast swelling with breakdown of the mitochondrial cristae and electron-density loss induced by 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole treatment. In addition, compound 6 enhanced 2.3-fold the nitrite levels in the Leishmania-stimulated macrophages. In silico pharmacokinetic prediction of compound 6 revealed that it is not recommended for topical formulation cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment, however the other properties exhibited results that were similar or even better than miltefosine, making it a good candidate for further in vivo studies against Leishmania parasites.
- Transmission electron microscopy